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Browns Gas Analyzed in Academia

 

Following is a report by Chris Eckman, student at Idaho State University.  This report supports my statements in videos and articles on our web site that Browns Gas is hydrogen, oxygen, and “other active gases.”

 

Long Beach 2010 PROCEEDINGS of the NPA 1

Plasma Orbital Expansion of the Electrons in Water

Chris Eckman

Idaho State University Undergraduate Student

246 Roosevelt Avenue, Pocetello, Idaho 83209

e-mail: cryptoscientia@gmail.com

Brown's Gas boasts a plethora of unusual characteristics that defy current chemistry. It has a cool flame of

about 130°C, yet melts steel, brick and many other materials. Confusingly, research both confirms and rebuffs

many claims about it, leading to a smorgasbord of theories today seeking to explain its unusual properties. One

possible theory, currently gaining support even from establishment science, depicts "plasma orbital expansion

of the electron in a water molecule". In this process, unlike electrolysis, the water molecule "bends" into a linear,

dipole-free geometry. This linear water molecule expands to gain electrons in the d sub-shell, and these extra

electrons produce different effects on different target materials. Electrons that scatter at point of contact produce

heat based upon electrical conductivity, density and thermal capacity of the material. It also shows why

Rydberg clusters are a part of browns gas and how the linear water molecule needs these clusters to survive.

This paper will explain this new theory and why it is gaining popularity among scientist in academia.

1. Introduction

George Wiseman defines Brown’s Gas (I agree with this

definition) as "the entire mixture of gasses evolving from an

electrolyzer specifically designed to electrolyze water and not

separate the resulting gasses." Brown’s Gas is unique. It has

testable properties that show something is different about this

gas. This paper shows the possibilities that exist to help explain

this phenomenon.

One of the key differences in Browns gas is that some of the

water molecules go into an excited isomer plasma state; hence

Brown’s Gas has more energy density because water molecules

have more energy and are in small clusters called Rydberg

Clusters. Rydberg Clusters are atoms and (or) molecules that are

weakly bound by the electrons and the electromagnetic force

together in miniature clusters. Plasmas are partially ionized gas,

in which a certain proportion of electrons are free rather than

being bound to an atom or molecule. The ability of the positive

and negative charges to move somewhat independently makes

the plasma electrically conductive so that it responds strongly to

electromagnetic fields.

In Brown’s Gas there is a unique form of plasma in which

electrons are weakly held rather than free floating. This is

known as "Non-equilibrium plasma" or "cold plasma”. In this

type of plasma the electrons have high energies but the

molecules or atoms that hold the extra electrons are relatively

unenergetic. In a Brown’s Gas torch, these extra electrons are

what produce the immense heat, while the molecule or atoms

releasing these electrons remains relatively cool. By definition,

an isomer is any molecule that has the same number and type of

atoms, like H2O is always going to be water, but the structure or

orientation of those atoms in the molecule may be different.

In Rydberg clusters this new form of water can exist much

longer than if by itself. This allows the gas to hold more energy

than normal H2 and O2 mixed and ignited.

2. Isomers of Water

There are ways to determine the stability of isomers. Some

isomers of molecules are naturally stable, but most of these

unusual isomer states are unstable and will not last long. One

method is to determine how much hold the atoms in a molecule

have for their electrons and how much room there would be for

more. The original water molecules exist in a sp3 hybridized

state whereas the “linear” molecule would have to use the d subshell

of the n = 3 shell to become a sp3d hybrid state. This allows

for the expansion of the extra electrons (but it will not hold them

for long). Upon relaxation it would resume its original state

reclaiming its polarity and attraction to other water molecules.

The water molecule would go from the tetrahedral and bent

shape (4 electron pairs, 2 used and 2 not used) to the trigonal

bipyramidal (5 electron pairs, 2 used, 3 not used) and linear

shapes, as in Figure 1.

The energy that was soaked in to the new state is not very

stable and will quickly release the extra electrons and fall back

into its regular state (just water). Rydberg clusters hold it in this

new state and will cause the isomer to last much longer then if

this isomer were by itself. Water in most forms is a great

insulator. However in this odd form of “electric steam” it would

act very much like a conductor. Indeed, Browns gas seems to be

great at conducting electricity.

Fig. 1. Normal vs. linear water molecule

This new ‘electric steam’ is a form of plasma where only the

electrons would be excited, and the water molecules would be

much cooler. Water vapor molecules will be broken up in the

plasma, but we find that Brown’s Gas has a significant amount of

water in it. This would actually be absorbing a huge amount of

energy and lower the total amount of energy per liter, but this is

not the case. The water is protected if in a non-equilibrium

plasma state. This means that it still water but has a ‘shell’ or

‘layer’ of electrons being carried piggy-back by the water as seen

in figure 1. Also Rydberg clusters hold more energy density and

keep the new water isomer stable longer.

If one was to take the individual atoms found in water and

combines the orbitals of each atom, the hydrogen can have a max

of 2 electrons and the oxygen will have a max of 8 electrons. The

2 Eckman: Plasma Orbital Expansion of the Electrons in Water Vol. 6, No. 2

oxygen is the only thing big enough to take on more electrons,

however the Octet rule will not allow for it. The Octet rule says

that certain atoms, like oxygen, can have up to 8 bonding

electrons. One thing to note is the octet rule CAN have

exceptions, when dealing with isomers, excimers, and cold

plasmas.

3. Production Process of the New Water Isomer

In order to be conductive, a continuously bonded substance

needs to have a way for electrons to move through it. Water with

ions in it passes electrons along through unoccupied orbital sites

in the ions.

A substance such as salt would provide the ions needed to

lower the resistance of pure water. In substances, electrons are

pushed along by what is called a conduction band and a valence

band.

These correspond to the LUMO and the HOMO. The LUMO

and the HOMO are acronyms for Highest Occupied Molecular

Orbital and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital. The LUMO,

or conduction band, has some spots with no electrons in it,

otherwise known as unoccupied. The HOMO is full of electrons;

it cannot push them along because it is full. Therefore, in order

for the material to conduct, the material needs to excite electrons

from the HOMO to the LUMO so they can move through the

substance. The LUMO and the HOMO are way too far apart for

conduction to take place. The energetic cost of exciting the

electrons is just too high. Putting enough energy in would break

the bonds in the material, destroying it, before it will conduct in

this way.

Electrons can also move through "holes," or unoccupied

spaces in an unfilled HOMO state. There is a place for an electron

to move into in the HOMO, so the material can "push" electrons

across itself, from hole to hole. Water has no holes for any

electrons to move to. Since this avenue of electron-pushing is

closed, and the electrons can't reach the LUMO energetically;

they can't move in water.

This is why if too much energy is pressed into water it will

break into hydrogen and oxygen. Oxygen attracts electrons

much more strongly than hydrogen (more electronegative),

resulting in a water molecule having a positive charge on the side

where the hydrogen atoms are and a negative charge on the

other side, where the oxygen atom is. Electrical attraction

between water molecules is due to this dipole nature of

individual water molecules to pull each other closer together,

making it more difficult to separate the molecules (meaning the

charge differences will cause water molecules to be attracted to

each other).

This attraction is known as hydrogen bonding. Surface

tension is a manifestation of this unique bonding. Hydrogen

bonding is a comparatively weak attraction compared to the

covalent bonds within the water molecule itself. In Brown’s Gas

the new trigonal bipyramidal (linear) water molecule will be

non-polar and will have a dipole-dipole with the negative charge

pointing toward the oxygen. The hydrogen bonding will be

weakened considerably but could still exist.

The reason that some of the water molecules gets "stuck" in a

linear form and do not break down in to hydrogen and oxygen is

because the water isomer gets surrounded by hydrogen ions,

oxygen ions and water vapor. The forces that are binding the

clusters are electric and partially hydrogen bonding. However

the interactions are a weak attraction and are known as Rydberg

clusters.

4. Energy in Brown’s Gas

Because water normally is within the N=2 shell, it needs a lot

of energy to move up and would rather break down into

Hydrogen and Oxygen then move up. However Brown’s Gas

may be moving up a level and storing the extra electrons in the

N=3 orbital. Each gap holds a large amount of energy.

 

Fig. 2. N orbital’s with corresponding sub-shells

The electron density also makes it appear to still be in the

range of water, not O2 or H2 or O or H, since none of them seem

to give right answers mathematically for the electron densities.

However Brown’s Gas does. It is a unique relatively unknown

structure of water.

Normally, the field present in the wire would create a net

acceleration in the same direction of the force; however the

constant collisions of electrons create a drag effect. The effect on

a hole is an average group velocity referred to as the drift

velocity vd (in m/s). It is found by the following equations:

d

e e

v J V

n e n eL

J = Current density (Amp/m2)

ne = Free electron density of material in water (particles/m3)

e = Electron charge (1.602 x 10-19 C/particle)

V = Applied voltage (V)

ρ = Resistivity of the material (Ω-m)

L = Path length (m)

Using these equations will help to determine what amount of

joules the electrons carry in the gas. The material being hit by

Brown’s Gas has those extra electrons transferred into the new

target material. Those electrons disperse causing high heat due

to the electrical resistance of that material. There is a point where

the current density can become so large that the lattice binding

energy in most materials can be overcome; this results in what is

called the fusing point. The fusing point is a critical falling apart

of the atomic structure, causing intense heat and energy.

The amount of joules that is added to browns gas due to the

extra electron presents would be approximately 600 (±34) joules

per liter of Brown’s Gas. This shows about the amount needed to

be added to just hydrogen and oxygen burning to be in the area

of Brown’s Gas (about 1500 joules per liter). This result helps

strengthen the fact that Brown’s Gas is electrical in nature.

5. Rydberg Clusters

The linear water isomer is stable if it contains Rydberg matter

clusters. These are clusters of highly excited matter (microscopic);

the electrons are usually free floating in a limited area and can be

bound by individual atoms or molecules. The life of a cluster

will be dependent on what type of atoms and molecules make it

Long Beach 2010 PROCEEDINGS of the NPA 3

up and will range from a few nano-seconds to a few hours. In

lab experiments Brown’s Gas average life is 11 minutes. Rydberg

matter clusters are usually associated with solids and liquids, but

can be found in gases. Something also intriguing is Rydberg

matter clusters can be made using a unique electrolysis process

in which special lengths and distances of the plates and the

materials are used.

Fig. 3. Possible Rydberg cluster found in Brown’s Gas

The Rydberg clusters may have hundreds to thousands of

individual atoms and molecules in one cluster. Figure 3 depicts a

Rydberg of a heterogeneous mix of water vapor, the linear water

isomer, some free electrons, monatomic and diatomic hydrogen,

monatomic and diatomic hydrogen, and some trace elements.

Fig. 4. Number of atoms or molecules (1000s) found in Brown’s Gas

Figure 4 shows a break down of the elements and molecules

of Brown’s Gas. There are four main peaks above 30 thousand

particles present in the test; these peaks are the basis of Brown’s

Gas. The first peak (from left to right) is diatomic hydrogen and

is found in abundant amounts in the Brown’s Gas mixture.

There are two peaks due to the fact that there were isotopes of

hydrogen in the test sample. The next major peak is water vapor,

this normally would be undesired because it would take from the

energy of the gas, but it is needed to form the Rydberg clusters.

Therefore the water in Brown’s Gas is needed to help increase the

energy density of the gas. There are two peaks here because

there are isotopes in the water as well.

The third peak is the one that was deemed unidentified by the

test, but it is proposed that this is the linear water isotope,

because it contains the weight of water with a few extra

electrons. If this is the linear water molecule, than it is only

making up about 3 to 12% of the total gas. It would not form if

there were no Rydberg clusters present! It needs the other gases

to make it stable as seen in figure 3. The fourth peak is the

diatomic oxygen. This is less then what would be expected in

normal electrolysis, but is normal in Brown’s Gas.

Some things to note are the presence of monatomic hydrogen

and oxygen, but in very small parts. Normally monatomic

hydrogen and oxygen would bond right away to form H2 and O2,

but it does not in Brown’s Gas, they remain ions. This helps to

prove that Rydberg clusters are forming.

There are also other trace elements, most likely due to

exposure to those elements while forming in the tank, impurities

in the water and traveling down the tube.

Evidence that Rydberg clusters have formed lies in the fact

that when compared with the molar content of two parts

hydrogen and one oxygen (compared to three molar of Brown’s

Gas), the Brown’s Gas is significantly heaver. The same molar

content shows that the density (not energy density) of Brown’s

Gas is much greater than that of just hydrogen and oxygen. If

this weight was that of water then the Brown’s Gas would be a

poor torch and transfer very little heat. In fact, most of the heat

would be absorbed into water vapor before hitting the target

material.

However, for the case of Brown’s Gas, this water is trapped in

energetic states with ions and a new form of linear water isomer.

This gives the gas a higher energy per volume (note that molar

and volume are very different) then that of hydrogen and

oxygen.

6. Brown’s Gas Plasma Reaction to Materials

Brown’s Gas will produce a different temperature at point of

contact depending on the target material. This is because

electrons that scatter at point of contact produce heat based upon

the melting or vapor point of the material, electrical conductivity,

density and thermal capacity of the material (how much heat it

will absorb). The extra electrons in the Brown’s Gas will repel

nearby electrons of the target material. The electron’s new

neighbor electron in the target material finds it repulsive, and

will move away, creating a chain of interactions that propagates

through the material at near the speed of light.

The drift velocity (electrons movement in a material) is

usually fractions of a millimeter per second, but if there are too

many electrons in one spot, the target will fall apart, at an atomic

scale, due to the sudden introduction of the new electrons and

the repelling negative forces.

These high energy electrons will not travel as fast as the gas

was traveling, when it hits the surface of something the electrons

will slow down significantly, thus releasing their kinetic energy

as heat; the more dense and resistive the material the hotter it

will be, the less dense or more conductive the material results in

less heat being generated. Almost everything gets hotter when

used as a resistor for electricity.

7. Electrical Presence

Fig. 5. Tungsten and its oxides found in a Brown’s Gas torch

4 Eckman: Plasma Orbital Expansion of the Electrons in Water Vol. 6, No. 2

Laboratory gas spectrometer analysis was used on the

Brown’s Gas and Tungsten. It proved that about 46% of the gas

was tungsten dioxide, 11% was tungsten (VI) oxide (trioxide) and

the rest was about 43% straight tungsten metal, it was found that

electricity will commonly make tungsten dioxide. Normally,

"WO2 is prepared by reduction of WO3 with tungsten powder

over the course of 40 hours at 900 °C".. It also has a super high

electrical conductivity and shows promise for superconducting

materials at high temps. The one that nature prefers is WO3.

Attempts to replicate it using an Acetylene Torch failed to

replicate Brown’s Gas results. There were some amounts of

WO3, as expected, but negligible amounts of WO2 when

compared to Brown’s Gas; this shows that Brown’s Gas burns

differently than an Acetylene Torch. Using electricity oxidize

tungsten, the experiment found that there were similar ratios of

tungsten oxides (within 12% of BG's numbers). Straight

Tungsten oxide is not common and was negligible < 0.001% in

the results. Small amounts of water and even smaller amounts of

H2 and O2 were found, confirming an electrical presence.

8. Conclusion

Brown’s Gas is different than other electrolysis processes.

This paper's introduction started out by quoting George

Wiseman. He states "the entire mixture of gasses evolving from

an electrolyzer specifically designed to electrolyze water and not

separate the resulting gasses." The main point of this paper is

that Brown’s Gas is unique and different.

Normal water molecules exist in a bent shape, if this water

molecule were to gain electrons it would normally break down

into hydrogen and oxygen, hence electrolysis of water. In

Brown’s Gas this processes takes a slightly different turn where

the water molecule will "bend" into a linear water molecule.

The water molecule shape goes from the tetrahedral and bent

(4 electron pairs, 2 being used and 2 not being used) to the

trigonal bipyramidal (5 electron pairs, 2 being used and 3 not

being used) and linear, this causes the shape change.

The new “linear” water molecule gains new electrons that

would have to use the d sub-shell. Gaining the use of the d subshell

allows for the expansion for the extra electrons. It is these

electrons that produce different effects to different target

materials, because electrons that scatter at point of contact

produce heat based upon the electrical conductivity (or

resistance), density and thermal capacity of the material (how

much heat it will absorb).

To survive the length of time that the linear water molecule

does requires some kind of support. It must be in a Rydberg

cluster. Water vapor is important also. It all helps to trap extra

energy and hold it until it reaches the torch nozzle and is ignited.

This paper also stresses the fact that one thing is abundantly

clear: Brown’s Gas is ELECTRICAL in nature, not chemical!

More research is needed to establish the fact that this linear

isomer is essential for the formation of Rydberg clusters. Why

does it need it to form these clusters? Why do O- and H+ remain

stable in a Rydberg cluster? What special conditions (in the

electrolyzer) are needed before the formation of Rydberg clusters

happen? Why do different types of electrolyzers produce

different amounts of Brown’s Gas?

There are many possibilities for the Brown’s Gas torch. There

are new alloys that can form under this unique gas. There are

new materials that can form. It can cut with laser like precision.

It can weld (certain materials/metals) without the use of flux.

This is due to the oxygen being used up by the hydrogen, thus

little to no oxidation of metals occurs. It produces a range of

different effects in different materials, due to the interactions of

the electrons in the material and the electrons in the gas. There

are great possibilities for the future.

References

[ 1 ] A. Bernas, C. Ferradini, J.-P. Jay-Gerin, Chem. Phys. 222:151 (1997).

[ 2 ] A. Bernas, C. Ferradini, J.-P. Jay-Gerin, J. Photochem. and Photobio. A:

Chem. 117:171 (1998).

[ 3 ] A. D. Becke, J. Chem. Phys. 98:5648 (1993).

[ 4 ] Jay L. Wile, Advanced Chemistry in Creation (Apologia Educational

Ministries, 2001).

[ 5 ] A. Michrowski, “Anomalous Water Explained by Brown's Gas

Research” and “Yull Brown’s Gas”, Planetary Association for Clean

Energy Newsletter 6(4):10-12 (Jul 1993).

[ 6 ] T.E. Bearden, “A Redefinition of the Energy Ansatz, Leading to a

Fundamentally New Class of Nuclear Interactions”, Proceedings of

the 27th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference, IECEC

4:303-310, San Diego, California, c/o Am. Nuclear Society (1992).

[ 7 ] Yull Brown, “Welding”, U.S. Patent 4,014,777 (Mar 29, 1977). "The

invention also relates to atomic welding to which the mixture {of

hydrogen and oxygen generated ion substantially stoichiometric

proportions} is passed through an arc causing disassociation of

both the hydrogen and oxygen into atomic hydrogen and oxygen

which on recombination generate an extremely hot flame."

[ 8 ] C. Chieh, “Bond Lengths and Energies”, http://www.science.

uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c120/bondel.html, retr. 2007-12-16.

[ 9 ] C. Lee, W. Yang, R. G. Parr, Phys. Rev. B37:785 (1988).

[ 10 ] F. Abu-Awwad, P. Politzer, J. Comput. Chem. 21:227 (2000).

[ 11 ] G. P. Parravicini, L. Resca, Phys. Rev. B8:3009 (1973).

[ 12 ] Bryan Palaszewski, “Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants:

Particle Formation Energy and Imaging Analyses”. Glenn

Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio. http://gltrs.grc.nasa.gov/ reports/

2002/TM-2002-211915.pdf, retr. 2007-12-16.

[ 13 ] Speciality Welds 2000 – 2010. http://www.specialwelds.com/

underwater-welding/atomic-hydrogen-welding.htm, 2007-12-16.

[ 14 ] http://www.phact.org/e/bgas.htm, retr. 2007-12-16.

[ 15 ] T.E. Bearden, “The Atomic Hydrogen Reaction”, http://www.

cheniere.org/misc/a_h%20reaction.htm,.retr. 2007-12-16.

[ 16 ] http://www.eagle-research.com/browngas/whatisbg/whatis.html.

[ 17 ] http://www.watertorch.com/whatis/whatis1.html.

[ 18 ] J. V. Coe et al, J. Chem. Phys. 107:6023 (1997).

[ 19 ] K. Coutinho, S. Canuto, “DICE: A General Monte Carlo Program

for Liquid Simulation”. University of São Paulo, Brazil.l. (2000).

[ 20 ] Maroulis, George. “Atoms, Molecules and Clusters in Electric

Fields”. Imperial College Press. London. (2006).

[ 21 ] Larry Oja, Malad, Idaho, used his ER1600 WaterTorch and tools.

[ 22 ] J. McCarthy, “Hydrogen” (1995-12-31), http://www-formal. stanford.

edu/jmc/progress/hydrogen.html, retr. 2008-03-14.

[ 23 ] M.J. Frisch, “Rydberg Clusters” Gaussian-98, Pittsburgh, PA (1998).

[ 24 ] P. Cabral do Couto et al, J. Chem. Phys. 119:7344 (2003).

[ 25 ] P. Politzer, F. Abu-Awwad, Mol. Phys. 95:681 (1998).

[ 26 ] S. Canuto, K. Coutinho, Adv. Chem. Phys. 28:90 (1997).

[ 27 ] S. H. Vosko, L. Wilk, M. Nusair, Canadian J. Phys. 58:1200 (1980).

[ 28 ] Welding Handbook, Vol. 2 (American Welding Society, 1991).

[ 29 ] W. J. Hehre et al, Ab Initio Molecular Orbital Theory (John Wiley

& Sons, New York, 1986).

[ 30 ] X. Hua et al, Phys. Rev. B55:16103 (1997).

 

The above report was obtained from http://www.worldsci.org/pdf/abstracts/abstracts_5440.pdf

 

This report is by no means a definite determination of the composition of Browns Gas but it does at least give the results of analysis with equipment not normally available to Browns Gas experimenters.  I thank Chris for his efforts at the University to shed light on our field. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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